algol65 (algol65) wrote,

Максим Исповедник (580-662 гг.)

Книги о Максиме Исповеднике.

  1. Andrew Louth "Maximus the Confessor"

  2. (Early Church Fathers)
    Routledge, 1996
    St. Maximus the Confessor, the greatest of the Byzantine theologians, lived through the most catastrophic period the Byzantine Empire was to experience before the Crusades. This book introduces the reader to the times and upheavals during which Maximus lived. It discusses his cosmic vision of humanity and the role of the church. The study makes available a large number of Maximus' theological treatises, many of them translated for the first time, which are accompanied by lucid and informed introductions. Maximus the Confessor provides a much needed introduction to the theology of Maximus, as well as direct access to his profound but often difficult thought.


  3. Despina Denise Prassas "St. Maximos</em> the Confessor's "Questions and Doubts": Translation and commentary"

  4. The Catholic University of America, 2003

    The dissertation provides an English translation of St. Maximos the Confessor's Questions and Doubts , the critical edition of which is found in the Corpus Christianorum Series Graeca and edited by José Declerck. The commentary on the Questions and Doubts focuses on the sources from which Maximos drew his biblical and patristic interpretations.

    The Questions and Doubts is a series of 239 interrogations and responses addressing theological, philosophical, ascetical, spiritual and liturgical concerns. The use of the quaestio-responsio genre in the text brings together the patristic exegetical aporiai tradition and the spiritual-pedagogical tradition of monastic questions and responses. The original work is believed to have been written before 626 CE while St. Maximos was a member of a monastic community located near Constantinople. Though it is unknown to whom the work was directed, most commentators of the Questions and Doubts conclude that it was written for a community of monks.

    The overarching theme found in the seemingly disjoint set of interrogations and responses is the importance of the ascetical life. For St. Maximos, askesis is a life-long endeavor that consists of the struggle and discipline to maintain control over the passions. One engages in the ascetical life by taking part in both theoria (contemplation) and praxis (action). The variety of ways of engaging in theoria and praxis are conveyed to the reader through the use of specific pedagogical "tools": etymology, typology, arithmology, military language, multiple interpretations for the same biblical or patristic passage, natural imagery, sacramental imagery, and anthropomorphosis.

    St. Maximos cites the work of several Christian writers, including Basil of Caesarea, Gregory Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa, Irenaeus, John Chrysostom, Nemesius of Emesa, Diadochus of Photike, Cyril of Alexandria and Dionysius the Areopagite, and also mentions Aristotle once. Other authors who are not mentioned by name but who may be sources for specific responses may include Origen, Evagrius, and, perhaps, Philo of Alexandria.


  5. Torstein Tollefsen "The Christocentric Cosmology of St Maximus the Confessor"

  6. (Oxford Early Christian Studies)
    Oxford University Press, 2008
    St. Maximus the Confessor (580-662), was a major Byzantine thinker, a theologian and philosopher. He developed a philosophical theology in which the doctrine of God, creation, the cosmic order, and salvation is integrated in a unified conception of reality. Christ, the divine Logos, is the centre of the principles (the logoi ) according to which the cosmos is created, and in accordance with which it shall convert to its divine source.
    Torstein Tollefsen treats Maximus' thought from a philosophical point of view, and discusses similar thought patterns in pagan Neoplatonism. The study focuses on Maximus' doctrine of creation, in which he denies the possibility of eternal coexistence of uncreated divinity and created and limited being. Tollefsen shows that by the logoi God institutes an ordered cosmos in which separate entities of different species are ontologically interrelated, with man as the centre of the created world. The book also investigates Maximus' teaching of God's activities or energies, and shows how participation in these energies is conceived according to the divine principles of the logoi. An extensive discussion of the complex topic of participation is provided.


  7. Edward Moore "Origen of Alexandria And St. Maximus the Confessor"

  8., 2005
    The revision of Origen's philosophical theology by St. Maximus the Confessor resulted in an eschatology involving the replacement of the human ego by the divine presence. In this study, I will examine the theological developments that led to this loss of a sense of human freedom and creativity in the face of the divine, tracing the influence of Origen's eschatology through the Cappadocian Fathers, Evagrius Ponticus and others, up to Maximus. This will allow me to show the manner in which Origen's humanistic theology was misunderstood and misinterpreted throughout the Patristic era, culminating in the anti-personalistic system of Maximus. Special attention will be paid to the development of Christian Neoplatonism, and how Christian contacts with the pagan philosophical schools came to have a profound effect on Eastern Patristic theology and philosophy. The final section of this study will suggest some ways in which the history of Patristic eschatology - especially Origen and Maximus - may serve as a fruitful source for contemporary theologians who are concerned with issues of personhood, creativity, and existential authenticity.


  9. Melchisedec Törönen "Union and Distinction in the Thought of St Maximus the Confessor"

  10. (Oxford Early Christian Studies)
    Oxford University Press, 2007


  11. Adam G. Cooper "The Body in St. Maximus the Confessor: Holy Flesh, Wholly Deified"

  12. (Oxford Early Christian Studies)
    Contemporary scholarship recognizes in Maximus the Confessor a theologian of towering intellectual importance. In this book Adam G. Cooper puts to him a question which from the origins of Christian thought has constituted an interpretative crux for catholic Christianity: what is the place of the material order and, specifically, of the human body, in God's creative, redemptive, and perfective economies? While the study builds upon the insights of other efforts in Maximian scholarship, it primarily presents an engagement with the full vista of Maximus's own writings, providing a unique contribution towards an intelligent apprehension of this erudite but often impenetrable theological mind.

  13. Demetrios Bathrellos "The Byzantine Christ: Person, Nature, and Will in the Christology of Saint Maximus the Confessor"

  14. (Oxford Early Christian Studies)
    St Maximus the Confessor is one of the giants of Christian theology. His doctrine of two wills gave the final shape to ancient Christology and was ratified by the Sixth Ecumenical Council in AD 681. This study throws new light upon one of the most interesting periods of historical and systematic theology. Its focus is the seventh century, the century that saw the rapid expansion of Islam, and the Empire's failed attempt to retain many of its south-eastern provinces by inventing and promoting the heresy of Monothelitism (only one will in Christ) as a bridge between the Byzantine Church and the anti-Chalcedonian Churches which prevailed in some of these areas. From the point of view of systematic theology, the book examines the meaning of the terms person/hypostasis, nature/essence, and will in the context of Christology after the Council of Chalcedon (AD 451), with special reference to Maximus. It also explores the complex question of the human will of Jesus Christ and its relation to his person and natures. The Byzantine Christ enhances our understanding of Eastern Orthodox theology and of some of the reasons that still separate it both from Western Christianity and from the so-called Oriental Orthodox Churches.

  15. Lars Thunberg "Man and the cosmos: the vision of St. Maximus the Confessor"

  16. Crestwood, St. Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1985
    Lars Thunberg, the author of the excellent study Microcosm and Mediator: The Theological Anthropology of St Maximus the Confessor, provides in this text a shorter, more popular study on this famous Byzantine theologian. While preserving the essence of his earlier work, he makes accessible to the general reader the thought of Maximus on the cosmos, the nature of man, man's relationship with God and the world, Christology, the liturgical and sacramental dimension, history and eschatology. Included also is an excellent appendix on 'Symbol and Mystery: Christ's Eucharistic Presence. 'According to Thunberg, what concerns Maximus most of all is 'the central fact [of] the reciprocity between God and man. On the ontological level, this reciprocity is one between an archetype and its image. It should become manifest on the existential level through a double movement: God's movement toward men in the Incarnation...and man's movement toward God in the imitative process of deification... The reciprocity between God and man for Maximus implies a natural capacity, and even will, to move in the direction of the other.'

  17. Norman Russell "The Doctrine of Deification in the Greek Patristic Tradition"

  18. (Oxford Early Christian Studies)
    Oxford University Press, 2006
    Deification in the Greek patristic tradition was the fulfillment of the destiny for which humanity was created - not merely salvation from sin but entry into the fullness of the divine life of the Trinity. This book, the first on the subject for over sixty years, traces the history of deification from its birth as a second-century metaphor with biblical roots to its maturity as a doctrine central to the spiritual life of the Byzantine Church. Drawing attention to the richness and diversity of the patristic approaches from Irenaeus to Maximus the Confessor, Norman Russell offers a full discussion of the background and context of the doctrine, at the same time highlighting its distinctively Christian character.

  19. Pascal Mueller-Jourdan "Typologie Spatio-Temporelle de l'Ecclesia Byzantine: La Mystagogie de Maxime le Confesseur"

  20. (Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae, Vol. 74)
    Brill Academic Publishers, 2005
    This study addresses the philosophical context of the Mystagogy of Maximus the Confessor. It examines how the Byzantine monk integrates Neoplatonist topics when exposing one of the most important feature of his religious conception of the physical world or cosmology.

    The volume contains three chapters. The first one compares the purpose of the Mystagogy and the program of the philosophical training in late Antiquity. The second consists of two parts : (1) study of the use of the Aristotelian categories of 'when' and 'where' in the 'Ambiguum 10' of Maximus in order to analyse the status of ecclesiastical architecture and the nature of the liturgical 'synaxis' of the church (chapter 3); (2) study of the development of the categories of space and time in the works of the Neoplatonist Greek commentators of Plato and Aristotle such as Jamblichus, Proclus, Simplicius and Damascius. The third chapter offers the first extended examination of the metaphysical status of the 'ecclesia' and its dynamic activity compared to the metaphysical status of space and time required for the explanation of the Neoplatonist physical world system. Henceforth, the 'ecclesia' of the Mystagogy can be considered as the type of the providential action of God.

    This book provides many important new perspectives for reading the works of Maximus the Confessor, especially the Mystagogy, not only for theologians, but also for scholars interested in late Antique and Byzantine philosophy.

  21. Antoine Lévy, "Le créé et l'incréé : Maxime le confesseur et Thomas d'Aquin : aux sources de la querelle palamienne"

  22. 2006
    Bibliotheque Thomiste, LVIX

    La réception du christianisme byzantin par l'Église catholique présente une sorte d'anomalie. Invoquant l'autorité de Thomas d'Aquin, les théologiens occidentaux rejettent généralement l'idée d'une distinction réelle entre l'essence et les énergies divines, tout comme la notion de grâce incréée, laquelle joue un rôle essentiel dans la vision de Grégoire Palamas (XIVe siècle). D'un autre côté, ces mêmes théologiens ont été nombreux à redécouvrir, durant la période récente, la pensée de Maxime le Confesseur (VIIe siècle), voyant en celui-ci un génial précurseur de Thomas d'Aquin. Or que resterait-il de la doctrine de Grégoire Palamas sans le patronage de Maxime le Confesseur? Comment méconnaître l'un et reconnaître l'autre au nom du même Thomas d'Aquin? Ce qui vient ici au jour à travers l'étude des contextes et des enjeux doctrinaux, c'est la coexistence, jusqu'alors insoupçonnée, de deux représentations distinctes du rapport entre le créé et l'incréé. L'Occident latin et l'Orient byzantin n'en finissent pas de comprendre différemment cette foi qui leur est pourtant indiscutablement commune.


  23. Aidan Nichols, "Byzantine Gospel: Maximus the Confessor in Modern Scholarship"

  24. 1994

    Maximus the Confessor (580-662), giant among early Byzantine theologians, stands at the summit of the Greek patristic tradition. He is spokesman of the Greek-speaking 'East' in something of the way Thomas Aquinas came to speak for the Latin 'West'. His extreme importance as a spiritual writer is evidenced by the huge space assigned to him in the Philokalia.

    Believing in the intimate link between dogma and prayer, Maximus opposed the heresies of his day with his own unmatched synthesis of Christian truth. For this, he was persecuted and mutilated, and died in exile. The modern rediscovery of Maximus, begun by Western Christian scholars such as Vittorio Croce, Pierre Piret, Hans Urs von Balthasar, Lars Thunberg and Juan-Miguel Garrigues, has led to an ever-increasing use of his theology and insights by Orthodox and Catholic theologians throughout Europe and North America. Maximus has also become a central point of reference in Catholic-Orthodox dialogue.

    Aidan Nichols has provided the English-speaking reader with a reliable guide to the major studies on Maximus done in Europe in the past twenty-five years: the period of 'rediscovery'. He reads Maximus through the eyes of those who have studied him in depth and builds up a multi-faceted portrait of this prince among theologians, and a comprehensive overview of his theology, his 'Byzantine Gospel'. Along with a brief biography, and an account of the history of the relevant scholarship, sufficient primary texts have been included to convey a sense of Maximus' powers both as a summarizer of the previous tradition, and as an original theologian in his own right.

    Aidan Nichols, O.P. is a member of the Dominican Community at Blackfriars, Cambridge, and the author of numerous books on Eastern and Western theology and Church history.


  25. Епифанович Сергей Леонтьевич, "Материалы к изучению жизни и творений преп. Максима Исповедника"

  26. 1917

    С.Л. Епифанович — выдающийся русский богослов-патролог, ученый Киевской Духовной Академии, защитивший о св. Максиме двухтомную диссертацию.

    Особо следует сказать о С.Л. Епифановиче — ученом, не дожившем и до 32 лет. После его смерти все близкие ему люди сходились в мнении, что «это был подвижник и науки, и веры. О нем говорили, как о Григории Богослове с Василием Великим в их бытность для образования в Афинах, что он знал две дороги: в Академию и храм». Перед своей кончиной этот «светский схимник», по выражению одного из друзей, смиренно оценивал свои научные работы так: «Много было толков, но как мало сделано. Есть кое-что из написанного, но все это не окончено, а потому и значения никакого не имеет», — «Там доучусь!» — произнес как-то больной окидывая прощальным скорбным взором свои обремененные книгами полки». Действительно, в чисто «количественном» отношении Сергей Леонтьевич успел сделать немного: его магистерская диссертация о прп. Максиме Исповеднике, почти уже готовая, так и не увидела свет, а переводы творений прп. Максима прервались, едва начавшись. Однако и две выдержки из диссертации С.Л. Епифановича, вышедшие отдельными выпусками, — «Преподобный Максим Исповедник и византийское богословие» и «Материалы к изучению жизни и творений преп. Максима Исповедника» — составляют целую эпоху в истории русской патрологической науки. Недаром в рецензии на первую книгу А. Прахов говорит, что она, по своему глубинному проникновению в суть богословия прп. Максима, обнаруживает, «за исключением трудов знаменитого Болотова, беспримерную в русском богословии самостоятельность работы». Подобное сравнение с В.В. Болотовым С.Л. Епифанович, несомненно, заслужил. Его рукописный курс патрологии подтверждает необычный Божий дар у почившего в Бозе молодого профессора, с рвением первохристианских «дидаскалов» исполнившего свое церковное служение на земле.


  27. Actes du Symposium sur Maxime le Confesseur, Fribourg, 2-5 septembre, 1980 (Maximus the Confessor)

  28. Felix Heinzer, Cristoph Schonborn (eds)

  29. Joseph P. Farrell "Free Choice in St. Maximus the Confessor"

  30. 1989

    Fareell's work is not a light read, but it is well worth the trouble. One would do well to have some kind of basic knowledge of the early church and the neo-platonic and Aristotelean philosophies before diving into this text. Farrell's work outlines the debate over the two natures in Christ in the 5th and 6th centuries very well. He clearly presents the theological and philosophical issues and what was at stake. He also does a wondeful job of outlining the thought of Maximus the Confessor, who is an absolute must for understanding Eastern Orthodox theology. Farrell also compares the Eastern approach on grace, free will and predestination with that of a more Western or Augustinian perspective. If you are looking for a sophisticated theological/philosophical work to assist you in understanding Eastern Orthodoxy and the differences that exist between it and Western Theology, this is a must read. That only thing that I would have enjoyed seeing more of, was more comparison with Augustinianism. If you are coming from a Reformation background this work is necessary to understanding the crucial differences and the growing influence of Eastern Orthodoxy.


  31. Partridge, Cameron Elliot , "Transfiguring sexual difference in Maximus the Confessor"

  32. 2008

    This dissertation studies the conception of sexual difference in the thought of Maximus the Confessor (580-662 C.E.). It focuses in particular upon several enigmatic phrases in Ambiguum 41 which describe first the human person and then Jesus Christ as "shaking out of nature the distinctive characteristics of male and female," "driving out of nature the difference and division of male and female" and "removing the difference between male and female" (PG 91 1305 C, 1309 A, & 1309 D). These statements have appeared to contemporary scholars to conflict with the broader shape Maximus's thought because the Confessor is known for a theological vision of cosmic unity in distinctions, a positive valuation of material creation, and his position, amid the seventh century Monothelite controversy, that Christ had two wills, stemming from his human and divine natures.

    By contrast, I argue that the removal of "male and female" in Ambiguum 41 does not conflict but rather plays a crucial role in Maximus's vision of the transfiguration of creation. The key to understanding Maximus's language of sexual purgation, I argue in chapter three, is its link with his notion of the human person as bond [Special characters omitted.] of the cosmos. In chapter four I then argue that the notion of "male and female" in Maximus's anthropology relates in an important way to his Christology, not by a parallel to the presence of two wills in Christ, but rather by the absence of two key volitional modalities in Christ, [Special characters omitted.] and [Special characters omitted.] , deliberative will and free choice, respectively. The removal of male and female in human beings and the absence of deliberative will and free choice in Christ mirror each other because of their connection in Maximus's notion of "original transgression."

    Chapters one and two treat two key predecessors of Maximus, Gregory of Nyssa and Nemesius of Emesa, showing how each theologian defines sexual difference in relation to the organization of the cosmos in ways that likely influenced Maximus.


  33. Петров В.В., "Максим Исповедник: онтология и метод в византийской философии VII в."

  34. В книге исследуется метафизика и диалектический метод Максима Исповедника (582-662) - одного из наиболее глубоких и сложных византийских мыслителей. Реконструируется понятийная система Максима и источники его построений в предшествующей античной и христианской традиции. Рассматриваются соответствующие концепции Платона, Аристотеля, Плотина, Прокла, а также учения христианских философов - Оригена, Григория Нисского и пс.-Дионисия Ареопагита. Многие тексты впервые переведены с греческого языка.

    Предметом этого исследования является онтология и диалектические методы Максима Исповедника (662), одного из наиболее значительных и сложных византийских мыслителей. Первая часть книги представляет собой введение в понятийную систему Максима. Необходимость специального терминологического анализа обусловлена тем, что многие важные понятия метафизики, гносеологии и антропологии Максима- например, «природа», «ипостась», «логос», «гносис», «существование», «опыт», «ощущение» - имеют в его системе смысл отличный от того, который вкладывается в них теперь, а во многих случаях отличный от того, каковой вкладывали в них его непосредственные предшественники и современники. В силу этого ключевые понятия системы Максима интерпретируются по-разному. К тому же, несмотря на внушительное число публикаций посвященных Максиму, практически отсутствуют работы, в которых его понятийная система анализировалась бы систематически и с достаточной полнотой.
    Во второй части работы изучается содержание, основные идеи и источники главы XLI Максимова трактата О различных трудных местах у святых Дионисия и Григория (PG 91, 1304D- 1316А). Этот небольшой текст в сжатом виде концентрирует в себе ключевые темы философско-богословской системы Максима. Чтобы понять и адекватным образом интерпретировать Трудность XLI, требуется знание практически всех аспектов учения Максима, а потому рассмотрение её требует последовательного обсуждения его онтологии, космологии, психологии и гносеологии. С другой стороны, понимание этого текста во многом проясняет учение Максима в целом.
    Третья часть книги посвящена изучению особенностей диэрезы как метода современной Максиму Исповеднику диалектики. Именно диэреза (наряду с обратным ей синтезом) является
    отличительной чертой рассуждений Максима в Трудности XLI. При этом область применения диэретических процедур выходит далеко за пределы собственно логики. Деления являются не только универсальным методом исследования, но и важнейшей характеристикой тварного бытия. Их последовательность образует квазилогическое древо, внешне напоминающее Порфириево, но по сути не являющееся таковым. Противоположностью делений является не анализ, как в современных Максиму философских системах, но синтез (сложение), понимаемый как воссоединение того, что было разделено. Максим задействует все известные ему виды синтеза: снятие противоположностей посредством перехода к вышестоящему виду, соединение через третий термин, соединение как сложение в единую ипостась и пр. О том, какое значение придавал Максим всеобщим делениям и соединениям говорит то, что устранение мировых делений постулируется им основной задачей человека; ради этого он был сотворен и приведен в бытие.


    1. Понятийная система Максима Исповедника
    1.1. Природа
    1.2. Природное движение
    1.3. Ипостась
    1.4. Логос
    1.5. Тропос существования
    1.6. Новоустроение природ
    1.7. Ведение
    1.8. Неведение
    1.9. Грехопадение
    1.10. Три силы души
    1.11. Образ и подобие Божии
    1.12. Различие или отличие, природ
    1.13. Разделение
    1.14. Тождество
    2.1. Что комментируется в Трудности XLI?
    2.2. Основные понятия Трудности XLI
    2.3. Источники и контексты Трудности XLI
    2.3.1. Григорий Богослов. Слова
    2.3.2. Немесий Эмесский. О природе человека
    2.3.3. пс.-Дионисий Ареопагит. О божественных именах
    2.3.4. Апостол Павел. Послание к Ефесянам
    2.3.5. Ориген. О началах
    2.3.6. Иоанн Скифопольский. Схолии к Ареопагитикам
    2.3.7. Григорий Нисский. Об устроении человека XVI-XVII
    2.3.8. пс.-Дионисий Ареопагит и Иоанн Скифопольский. «Божественная вера» Прокла
    3.1. Деление и соединение как диалектические методы
    3.1,1. Четыре метода диалектики
    3.1.2. Деления как последовательность дихотомий
    3.1.3. Деление на мужское и женское
    3.1.4. Соединение через средний термин
    3.2. Типы и механизмы соединений у Максима
    3.2.1. Соединение как переход к большей общности
    3.2.2. Соединение крайних через средний термин
    3.2.3. Усваивание и уподобление в соединении
    3.2.4. Обмен свойствами и движение друг к другу в соединении
    3.3. Гносеологический аспект соединений: когнитивные способности и онтологическая иерархия
    3.3.1. Прокл (412-485)
    3.3.2. Аммоний (435/45-517/26)
    3.3.3. Пс.-Дионисий и его схолиасты
    а) Божественное знание
    б) Ангельское знание
    в) Душа и ее знание
    3.3.4. Максим Исповедник
    Восхождение ума к Богу
    3.4. Всеобщие деления и соединения в Трудности XLI
    3.4.1. Сложность истолкования делений
    3.4.2. Деления и космогония
    3.4.3. Деления в контексте гностицизма и пифагореизма
    3.4.4. Деления и логическое древо Порфирия
    3.4.5. Высшие соединения - ипостасны
    3.4.6. Обратимость делений
    3.4.7. Две парадигмы рассмотрения делений и соединений
    3.4.8. Отчего соединений пять?
    3.5. Альтернативная история
    3.6. Особенности делений Трудности XLI
    Первое разделение
    Последующие разделения
    3.7. Преодоление делений
    Цель и смысл творения человека и мира
    Преодоление пятого и четвертого делений
    Преодоление третьего и второго делений
    Преодоление первого деления
    Проблема титула и рубрикации Трудностей


  35. Jean Claude Larchet, "La divinisation de l'homme selon Saint Maxime le Confesseur"

  36. Nikos Matsoukas, "La vie en Dieu selon Maxime le Confesseur, 1994 (Maximus the Confessor)"

  37. Vasilios Karayiannis, "Maxime le Confesseur: Essence et energies de Dieu (Theologie historique 93)"

  38. Polycarp Sherwood, "The earlier ambigua of St Maximus the Confessor and his Refutation of the Origenism (Studia Anselmiana)"

  39. Paul Blowers, "Exegesis and spiritual pedagogy in St Maximus the Confessor"

  40. Polycarp Sherwood, "The earlier ambigua of St Maximus the Confessor and his Refutation of the Origenism, Studia Anselmiana"

  41. Pauline Allen, Bronwen Neil, "Maximus the Confessor and his Companions: Documents from Exile (Oxford Early Christian Texts)"

  42. Hans Urs von Balthasar, "Cosmic Liturgy: The Universe According to Maximus the Confessor (Communio Books)"

  43. Lars Thunberg, "Man and the cosmos: the vision of St. Maximus the Confessor"

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